You are here: Home / Reports


The reports, law reviews, policy and industry papers will help to provide an institutional memory of the industry of gaming in California.
February 26, 2019: Overview of Gambling in California
Prepared for CA State Senator Dodd by Legislative Analysis
May 17 2014: Short Falls in Indian Gaming Funds
Prepared by Legislative Analysis
June 18, 2019: Governor Newsome Executive Order - Apology to Native American Governments
This Executive Order creates a Truth and Healing Council, further it instructs that the State shall consult with Tribes on all issues affecting their communities and write a report due Jan. 2020.
May 2019: Audit Report - The Bureau of Gambling Control and California Gambling Control Commission
Their Licensing Processes are Inefficient and Foster Unequal Treatment of Applicants
June 2018 American Gaming Association – Economic Impact of Gaming Industry
Oxford Economics’ 2018 study found that the U.S. gaming industry: • Contributes $261 billion to the U.S. economy, a 9.5 percent increase since 2014; • Supports nearly 1.8 million jobs, up from 1.7 million jobs in 2014; and • Generates $40.8 billion in tax revenues to federal, state and local governments.
2017: Hiscox Embezzlement Study
The median age of the perpetrators is 48 years old, 51% of the embezzlers are women and 37% of cases were committed by someone in the finance or accounting functions. Thirty-seven percent of cases involved losses of more than $500,000, and 23% of cases involved losses of over $1 million. Over a quarter of the schemes lasted for more than five years.
April 11, 2018: Inspector General Report
Final Evaluation
Jan. 2018:  Dept. of Interior Contingency Plan – Government Shutdown
The IG defines who is and who is not an essential employee
November 9, 2017 : Tribal Loan Guarantee
The report discusses not only the abuses of the loan guarantee program, but the  lack of proper delegation of authority that the BIA uses and how it contributes to the abuses. 
Sept. 27, 2017: Human Trafficking Investigates in Indian Country
Testimony before the Committee on Indian Affairs U.S. Senate
OCTOBER 2016 AARP - The Casino Trap
As the gambling industry booms, aggressive marketing targets older patrons.
April 2016: State Revenue From Gambling- The Short Term Relief and Long Term Disappointment
By Lucy Dadayan April 2016 The Rockefeller Institute of Government
2015:"games in the brain" ; Neural Sustrates of Gambling Addiction
June 2015: Regulation and Oversight by the Federal Government, States and Tribes
Governmental Accountability Office - Report to Congressional Requester's Tribal Gaming and the NIGC
May 28, 2014: Law Review - Fencing the Buffalo- Off Reservation Gaming and Possible Amendments to Section 20 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act
By Tess Johnson
2014: California Tribal Gaming Economic Industry Report
Commissioned by Tribes
March 2014: California State Audit on Special Distribution Fund
Counties’ Benefit Committees Did Not Always Comply With State Laws for Distribution Fund Grants
March 2014: Seniors in Casino Land visit the site for your free copy.
2013: Tribal Jurisdiction over Nonmembers
Office of Congressional Research
Feb. 2002: Inspector General Report
November 2013: Making Native America Safer
The Indian Law and Order Commission is pleased to transmit its final report and recommendations—A Roadmap For Making Native America Safer—as required by the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010, Public Law 111-211 (TLOA). These recommendations are intended to make Native American and Alaska Native nations safer and more just for all U.S. citizens and to reduce the unacceptably high rates of violent crime that have plagued Indian country for decades. This report reflects one of the most comprehensive assessments ever undertaken of criminal justice systems servicing Native American and Alaska Native communities. Please give this report a few minutes to download - it is a large item.
New York's Promise
The report was written by David Blankenhorn, a scholar who leads the Institute for American Values, a non-partisan think tank in New York City. Why Sponsoring Casinos Is a Regressive Policy Unworthy of a Great State
Why Casino Matter
A new 2013 - report released today from the Council on Casinos, an independent group of 33 scholars and public policy leaders convened by the Institute for American Values, a New York City-based think tank.
May 2013: California Card Room Study
Industry Report
May 25, 2012: Little Hoover Commission Report
Governor Brown's Reorganization (2) Changes responsibilities of Bureau of Gambling Control and the California Gambling Control Commission
Feb. 13, 2012: President's fiscal year 2013 Budget Request for Indian Affairs
Maintains commitment to improvoing conditions throughout Indian country.
Feb. 2012: FITCH REPORT- Native American Gaming Insights
Feb. 15, 2011:Indian Gaming Special Distribution Fund
California State Auditor released this report today: In California, Indian tribes currently operation almost 65,000 class III gaming devices, such as slot machines. Key Findings call for reform!
2010: A Post Carcieri Vocabulary Exercise
WHAT IF "NOW" REALLY MEANS"THEN"? BY: Heidi M. Staudenmaier and Ruth K. Khalsa William S. Boyd School of Law -University of Nevada, Las Vegas International Masters of Gaming Law Spring of 2010
Dec. 13, 2010: Crime on Indian Reservations
GAO Report - Government Accountability Office
April 2010: Reflections of IGRA 20 Years after Enactment
Arizona State Law Journal Volumen 42 Number 1 Spring 2010 By Virgina Boylan
2008: Understanding Contextual Differences in American Indian Criminal Justice
Vol 32 #4 2008
Sept. 9, 2008: Massachuesetts Council on Complusive Gambling
Gambling in the Golden State- 1998 Forward
California State Library, May 2006, Charlene Wear Simmons, Ph.D.: This report was requested by California Attorney General Bill Lockyer and provides an overview of gambling in California since 1998,* including its social and economic impacts.
Gambling in California - 1997
California State Library - January 1997, by Roger Dunstan: The Gaming Sector is a Large Entertainment Industry. In 1995, gambling in the United States grossed over $40 billion in revenues.
1997: California Indians and their lands
Sept. 1997: Advisory Council on California Indian Policy
Final Reports and Recommendations to the Congress of the United States Pursuant to Public Law 102-416
Growth in Gambling in California - February 1994
California Department of Justice, Attorney General Daniel Lungren: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the current growth of gambling in America and California and to estimate the potential growth of gambling as it affects California.
Gaming in California 1993
California Department of Justice - Attorney General Daniel Lungren: The purpose of this report is to document that cardroom gaming and gaming on Indian reservations in California are an attractive target for infiltration by traditional and non-traditional organized crime figures.
Up In Smoke -2007
2007 - Buttlegging, Cybersmokes and the Disappearance of New York State Tax Revenue -federal law gives the Commissioner of Indian Affairs authority to make rules and regulations with respect to the sale of goods to Indians on reservations.
Morgan Stanley Tribal Gaming Review
February 2006: California expansion stretched out: The Golden State has been touted as one of two major markets that will grow the installed slot base.
New Math in California
August 2, 2004 - CIBC: A more in depth look at slot expansion in the Golden State.
Economic Impacts of Tribal Gaming on the State of Arizona
June 2001- University of Arizona: The last few months have seen intensified public discussion of American Indian gaming operations in Arizona. At the heart of the debate lie questions regarding the impact of tribal gaming operations on the Arizona economy.
Indian Gaming Special Distribution Fund-Audit
July 2007 - California State Auditor: The grants we reviewed were used for the statutorily mandated purposes. However, not every project funded under one of those purposes was linked to an impact from a casino.
2007- Represents the Evolution of the Legislatures Role on Tribal State Compact Ratification
By Cheryl Schmit - Director, Stand Up For California: Legislative power is fundamental to our system of government, it directly represents the People.
Urban Casinos the Exception to the Rule
September 2007: By Cheryl Schmit, Director - Stand Up For California: Current federal process allows for manipulation whether perceived or real of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) exceptions for gaming on after-acquired lands.
2005: The Convergence of Public Backlash, Tribal Competition and Political Scandals
From California to Capitol Hill and back again, public backlash, tribal competition and political scandal is converging on gaming interests, elected officials and tribes themselves.
2004:Leading the Off-Reservation Debate
Off-Reservation gaming expansion has become a national experiment in California. In order to maintain control over gaming policy, California is developing innovative and creative solutions in re-negotiated and new tribal state compacts.
Gambling and Crime NIJ Study.pdf
Researchers found significantly more problem gambling among arrestees than in the general population. The arrestees who were interviewed had high levels of criminal activity related to pathological gambling.
2007-National Money Laundering Strategy
United States Treasury-Chapter 9 Casinos-Threat Assessment: The most notable development in this field is the striking growth of Native American casinos, which have enjoyed annual double-digit revenue growth for the last ten years.
Indian Country Drug Assessement
Consequently, residents of Indian Country, who make up a very small segment of the overall population of the United States, are often isolated, and the societal problems that confront them, including drug abuse.
2007: UCLA Report on Public Law 280
PL 280-Part 1 "Law Enforcement in Indian Country"
July 1986, California Department of Justice, Attorney General John K. Van de Kamp: The goal of this article is to provide line officers and law enforcement administrators with an overview of the principal legal issues involving the California tribes.
PL 280 Part 2 "Law Enforcement in Indian Country"
August 1986: California Department of Justice, Attorney General John K. Van De Kamp.
Off Reservation Gaming: To Shop or Not To Shop
Casino Lawyer Summer 2005, by Attorney Heidi McNeil Staudenmaier: Real Estate marketeers uniformly agree that the key to success in their business is "location, location, location."
"Reservation Shopping": The Controversy Continues
Casino Lawyer - Winter 2008, by Heidi McNeil Staudenmaier: Reservtion shopping has become more prevalent and certainly more controversial.
The Battle for Compacts Under IGRA
October 2007, by Heidi McNeil Staudenmaier, Casino Lawyer: Prior to the passaage of the IGRA in 1988, the term compact had little application outside governmental functions involving agreements between states and similar sovereign entities.
Negotiating Local Agreements for Tribal Casinos
The need for local services is unquestioned. The problem for the tribe is in contracting with the local government to secure them.
Shifting the Cost
March 2003: Children of casino workers in survey group are much more likely to be enrolled in "Healthy Families" than would be expected given family income.
Impacts of IGRA on Gambling in the US
October 2003, International Municipal Lawyers Association: Large-scale casino gaming of any type, regardless of ownership has significant impacts and places a tremendous strain on state and local communities.
2004: Exiling Ones Kin: Banishment and Disenrollment in Indian Country
Western Legal History, Vol. 17 N. 2. Summer/Fall-2004: David Wilkins has published “Exiling One’s Kin: Banishment and Disenrollment in Indian Country” in Western Legal History. This excellent piece describes banishment and membership laws from traditional law through the early 20th century and into the modern era of tribal banishment and disenrollment.
Wages and Healthcare Benefits
The research in this report identifies the impacts of tribal gaming and its potential growth on local communities with a focus on the Palm Springs area in the Coachella Valley and the gaming operations of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians.
Casino Impacts
Feb. 2003: The research in this report identifies the impacts of tribal gaming and its potential growth on local communities with a focus on the Palm Springs area in the Coachella Valley and the gaming operations of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians.
Impact on Schools
This report details the costs imposed by the casino industry on the community’s educational system through the industry’s exacerbation of population growth and childhood poverty.
California Tribal Casino Compact Amendments
May 2007, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE: by Peter Drier, Ph.D. An analysis of the 2006 compact amendments to the Big 5 Tribes.
Fiscal Impact of the 2006 Tribal Gaming Compacts
Our analysis of the amended Pechanga, Morongo, Agua Caliente and Sycuan tribal gaming compactssigned by Governor Schwarzenegger in 2006 indicates that:The amount of revenue received by the state from the 2006 tribal gaming compacts very likely will fall shortmore than $9 billion.
Explanation of Loophole in 2006 Compacts
Ambiguity in the language of the 2006 compacts could result in significantly lower payments to the state General Fund than the tribes have claimed. The payments to the state under the compacts are calculated as a percentage of the total “net win” from the new slot machines.
Education Funding Analysis of the 2006 Compacts
Proposition 98, the school funding formula for schools, derives its revenues from proceeds of taxes. Because tribes are sovereign nations, the state cannot levy taxes on their economic enterprises.
Q & A:Tribal Casinos
Feb. 2007 - Legislative Analysist Office: In this report, we answer key questions related to (1) the history of tribal casino expansion in California and (2) payments from the casinos to state and local governments.
Nov. 2010: American Indian Self-Determination: The Political Economy of a Policy that Works
Stephen Cornell University of Arizona Joseph P. Kalt Harvard Kennedy School
Early California laws & Polices Releated to California Indians
Did the State of California enact laws that prohibited California Indians from practicing their religion, speaking their languages or practicing traditional ceremonies and customs?
Gaming Laboratories International - 2007
May 18, 2007: 1.1.1 General Statement. Gaming Laboratories International, Inc. (GLI) has been testing gaming equipment since 1989. Over the years, we have developed numerous standards for all over the world.
California Problem Gambling Prevalence Survey
August 2006, State Office of Problem and Pathological Gambling:This summary presents key findings from the first comprehensive survey of gambling participation and gambling-related problems among adult residents of California.
Characteristics of Problem and Complusive Gambling
2008 - American Psychological Association: Pathological gambling is an impulse control disorder, characterized by the inability to reduce or cease gambling, resulting in adverse social, psychological, financial, and legal consequences that include depression, suicide, divorce, unemployment, and homelessness.
The Tug of the Newfangled Slot Machine
May 9, 2004, by Gary Rivlin, New York Times: Baerlocher also watched players nearby at another machine he designed for I.G.T., ''Wheel of Fortune.'' I.G.T. is to the slot industry as Microsoft is to computer software, and no product contributes more to I.G.T.'s bottom line than what industry insiders simply call ''Wheel.''
Class II Gaming Machines in San Pablo
Advances in gaming technology have transformed Class II games from traditional bingo into virtual replicas of Class III slot machines.
National Gambling Commission Report-Executive Summary
Part 1 of 5, January 1999 This is the Report of a national Commission to the President, Congress, State Governors and Tribal leaders.
Part 2 - National Gambling Commission
Part 3 - National Gambling Commission
Part 4-Nation Gambling Commission
Part 5-National Gambling Commission
Intersection of Corporate America and Indian Country
Negotiating successful business alliances. by: Heidi McNeil Staudenmaier and Metchi Palaniappan
June 2000: Urban American Indian Children in Los Angeles County
Los Angeles County is home to the largest urban American Indian population in the United States. As of 1998, census projections put the number at 56,281, a 22% increase from 1990 census figures (Economics and Statistics Administration, 1999).
Labor Law at Tribal Casinos
A Fateful Time - Excerpt
The Background and legislative History of the Indian Reorganization Actby: Elmer R. Rusco, Ph.D. University of Nevada Press, Reno and Las Vegas
Tribal Gaming Revenue Plans
Inspector General report evaluating the process that BIA uses to review and approve Revenue Allocation Plans to ensure tribes distribute gaming revenues responsibly.
A Casino for San Pablo
A Losing Proposition An Analysis of Revenues and Expenditures for a Proposed Casino for San Pablo, California by William N. Thoompson, Ph.D.
Intergovernmental Compacts in Native American law Models for Expanded usage
Harvard law Review Vol. 112:922 1999
BY John Warren Kindt - Drake Law School Journal
May 2001 DA Bradbury on Gambling
Aug. 2006 Statistical Portrayal of the Indian Tribal Governments Office's
The Business-Economic Impacts of licensed Casino Gambling
Sept. 1997 Wiscon. Rept. Metropolitian Gambling
2003: Market and Economic Impact in Wayland Michigan
Americans for non-smoker rights.
Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos
Feb. 2010
Nov. 2009: Florida Report on Internet Poker and its Impacts
Nov. 2009
Nov. 2009: How Stations Casinos Insiders Drove the Company into Bankruptcy
By Culinary Workers Union Local 226 Nov 19, 2009
Book List
Suggested Reading
2010: Economic Report on Tribal Gaming
Executive Summary

Document Actions